Abstract A working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS) has developed the first European assessment guidelines of Tourette Syndrome (TS). The available literature including national guidelines was thoroughly screened and extensively discussed in the expert group of ESSTS members. Detailed clinical assessment guidelines of tic disorders and their comorbidities in both children and adults are presented. Screening methods that might be helpful and necessary for specialists’ differential diagnosis process are suggested in order to further analyse cognitive abilities, emotional functions and motor skills. Besides clinical interviews and physical examination, additional specific tools (questionnaires, checklists and neuropsychological tests) are recommended.
Abstract To develop a European guideline on pharmacologic treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS) the available literature was thoroughly screened and extensively discussed by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette syndrome (ESSTS). Although there are many more studies on pharmacotherapy of TS than on behavioral treatment options, only a limited number of studies meets rigorous quality criteria. Therefore, we have devised a two-stage approach. First, we present the highest level of evidence by reporting the findings of existing Cochrane reviews in this field. Subsequently, we provide the first comprehensive overview of all reports on pharmacological treatment options for TS through a MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE search for all studies that document the effect of pharmacological treatment of TS and other tic disorders between 1970 and November 2010. We present a summary of the current consensus on pharmacological treatment options for TS in Europe to guide the clinician in daily practice. This summary is, however, rather a status quo of a clinically helpful but merely low evidence guideline, mainly driven by expert experience and opinion, since rigorous experimental studies are scarce.
Abstract This clinical guideline provides recommendations for the behavioural and psychosocial interventions (BPI) of children and adolescents with tic disorders prepared by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS). A systematic literature search was conducted to obtain an update on the efficacy of BPI for tics. Relevant studies were identified using computerised searches of the Medline and PsycINFO databases and the Cochrane Library for the years 1950-2010. The search identified no meta-analyses, yet twelve (systematic) reviews and eight randomised controlled trials provided evidence for the current review. Most evidence was found for habit reversal training (HRT) and the available but smaller evidence also supports the efficacy of exposure with response prevention (ERP). Both interventions are considered first line behavioural treatments for tics for both children and adults and should be offered to a patient, taking into account his preference. Treatments that are considered second line or add-on behavioural treatments are contingency management, function based interventions and relaxation training. Neurofeedback is still experimental. Almost no research was identified that examined the efficacy of psychosocial interventions, e.g., psychoeducation and group work. Based on clinical practice, this guideline recommends behavioural treatment as first line offer to patients in most cases. It should be embedded within a psychoeducational and supportive context and can be combined with drug treatment.